Electronic Configuration: The distribution and arrangement of electrons in various shells, sub-shells and orbitals is called electronic configuration. Electronic configuration follows three rules. Auf Bau Principle: It states: “Electrons occupy shells in […]

## What ate the |Shapes of s, p and d-orbitals

Shapes of Orbitals: Shapes of orbitals are obtained by probability contours. If we plot probability of finding electrons versus distance from nucleus, we see that probability is zero at the nucleus it […]

## Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle – Class 11 Chemistry Notes

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: In 1927, Warner Heisenberg proposed the uncertainty principle. It states: “It is impossible to state both position as well as momentum of electrons accurately and simultaneously” To determine the […]

## Broglie’s Hypothesis Applications – Dual nature of Radiations

Important Applications of Broglie’s Hypothesis: De Broglie’s hypothesis is good enough to explain Bohr’s postulates. Bohr’s theory states that electron revolves only in orbits of particular radii and in an orbit […]

## Broglie’s Hypothesis: Dual nature of radiations

Louis de Broglie’s Hypothesis: (Dual nature of radiations) There arose a conflict about the nature of radiations. There were two schools of thoughts: (i) wave nature and (ii) particle nature […]

## Moseley Experiment and Moseley’s Law : Statement and Mathematical Expression

Moseley Experiment : Henry Moseley in 1913 performed an experiment and showed that the frequencies of emitted x-rays increase regularly with the number of positive charges in the nucleus of target elements, […]

## X-rays: Transitions involving inner-shell electrons

Inner- Shell Transitions and Characteristic X-Rays: Hydrogen atom has only one shell in ground state. Its energy levels are of the order of few electron volts (ev) ; En = – […]

## Spectrum of Hydrogen Atom

Do you Know !! Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen : When Hydrogen gas is heated or subjected to electric discharge, its electron moves to higher energy orbits by absorbing energy. Subsequently when electron […]

## Calculate the Wave length and Wave Number of Radiations emitted

Wave length (λ) of Radiations emitted during Electron jump: When electron jumps from one orbit to another, energy is emitted or absorbed in the form of radiations which have wave length (λ). […]

## Determine the Frequency of Radiations emitted- Bohr’s Model Application

Do you Know !! Determine the Frequency of Radiations emitted: When electron jumps from one orbit to another, energy is emitted or absorbed in the form of radiations which have frequency (ﬠ) […]